DEMOCRACY AND RELIGIONS TO THE TEST OF GLOBALIZATION

genteTransition is the key word, one that allows you to read together, currently, what is happening in the two shores of the Mediterranean. As pointed out by Cardinal Scola in a recent editorial, put into the relationship and dialogue in different worlds - the West and the Arab world; Christianity and Islam - is essential. In a unified vision of the term "transition" is accompanied by the question: "Through whom?”. Where proceeds through the transition? The, in other words, the Arab Spring to where? Whither Europe with the euro crisis? Where to Italy with a political crisis that is causing earthquakes the entire institutional framework? This "where" it is not clear, or predetermined, although it may indicate possible directions. What is clear, instead, is the cause that led to the crisis of the dominant political forms. You globalization post-'89 that causes the decline of the West "political", of that political theology (Carl Schmitt) that, prevailing in the clash East- West, dissolves for lack of enemies. In Italy the end of the First Republic, an end that extends down to us, is expressed in the figure of the parties "liquid", technical policy, in the decline of the idea of ​​representation. Globalization marks, sovereign states in Europe that empties, the crisis of liberal democracies national. Proceeds as neutralization of differences - political, Religious, natural - as the end of History (Fukuyama). This process affects Europe and the Western world in general, but not the rest of the world. After September 11 2001 globalization, outside the West, yes has de-legitimized the political forms that had arisen in the East-West confrontation, but not the size of the Political. The novelty here is the fact that the new policy is designed from religious. È quanto Samuel Huntington aveva intuito nel suo The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, the 1996. The spread of the single global market and the expansion of welfare is not automatically neutralize the differences. On the contrary they produce, outside the West, self-esteem, rediscovery of roots and religious ideals, rejection of Western hegemony. As stated by Serge Latouche, the Westernization of the world involves mimetic processes and confrontational at the same time. The scenario sees post-2001, one side, a West in which globalization and secularization coincide and, other, a globalization that causes technological mimesis and political theology (Islamic, Jewish Orthodox, Hindu). Globalization is a two-faced Janus that arouses secularization and fundamentalism.
It is in line with this perspective that we are witnessing, the other side of the Mediterranean, to a return to politics, a return that is, somehow, a "first time". It is the theme of the Arab Spring that, with particular attention to Tunisia, is the focus of the present number of "Oasis". It is a theological return policy which can not be – fails to be - a mere return to tradition. Despite the Salafists and Al-Qaeda, even the Muslim Brotherhood or an-Nahda realize that a "return" is not possible. It is not feasible to exclude entirely a return to European modernity-Western, the shape of the modern state with its rights and its freedom. The return theological-political becomes, that, the problem of the relationship between politics and religion. Scartata yours salafita, who immediately wants the Islamic state and take advantage of the riots to divide Muslims, e the path of European laicismo, remain two roads: that tactic, instrumentally that accepts the democratic form under present conditions reserving, but, condition it heavily when the Islamization from below is fulfilled; the liberal, it recognizes as a fundamental distinction between the State, secular, and civil society, nun.
A difference that, in the number of "Oasis", is well expressed by the American model, illustrated by the Archbishop of Philadelphia Charles Chaputt, and the Lebanese model, through the figure of the civic state theorized by the Shi'ite Mahdi Muhammad Shamseddine. Variant, less secular, of this position is the one that means the sharia as a source of inspiration, not strictly legislation, the legislative framework. Important, from this point of view, is the declaration of March 2012 non Rachid Ghannouchi, leader of an-Nahda, the equivalent of the Tunisian Muslim Brotherhood, that his party would not require a reference to sharia in the new Constitution.
Of this intense debate, currently facing the Arab-Islamic world, entirely passed over in silence by our media, "Oasis" in this number as well as in past offers a significant choice of positions. In this way, the journal provides a very valuable contribution. Allows you to open a gate in the wall of ignorance that separates neighboring peoples, divided from the sea and secular bias, which immigrants are increasingly present among us, and also helps to understand the affinity of the problems. We, with the crisis of democracy in which religion does not seem to have the right to speak; their, with the attempt to access the democracy through religion. Their return to the scene of the religious challenges our desolate secularization as well as, in Parallel, the distinction between politics and religion has much to say to the current Arab Spring. A distinction that has established itself, in modern, not only against religion (Christian), but also thanks to it. Thanks to the duality between God and Caesar, Church and State, city ​​of God and the earthly city that, present in the early centuries of Christianity and then obscured, is found and then recognized in the Second Vatican Council. A model that involves the critique of political theology. This does not mean opposition, between religion and politics, but clear distinction in order to allow the relationship between democracy and religion. Rightly "Oasis" highlights the importance in this reflection had the figure and work of Jacques Maritain. Catholic thought of the 900 had to reject the theological-political model medievalist to open to liberal democracy and the encounter with the modern.
A similar path is required today to Islam, enhancement through a hermeneutics of liberal positions in the long tradition.

Massimo Borghesi

Comments are closed.